Dyslexia & Reading Difficulties
Dyslexia is the most common learning difficulty, predominantly known as a difficulty with learning to read and write. Dyslexics also have a varied comprehension of language. Other difficulties include:
- Phonological awareness – awareness of all sounds, this is the ability to hear and distinguish sounds.
- Phonological decoding – ability to decode words and non-words by sounding them out.
- Processing speed – taking longer to process information or perform a task.
- Orthographic coding – ability to store written words in working memory.
- Auditory short-term memory – ability to retain spoken information.
There are three subtypes of dyslexia; visual, auditory and attentional. Dyslexia is mainly considered to be an afferent (receptive) language based learning difficulty, but it can also impact the efferent (expressive) language skills.